Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

Geospatial Analysis of Urban Metamorphosis and implication on Development Control in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria


Cities in developing countries experience rapid expansion, which has a negative effect on the aesthetic value of the city. This paper thus examined urban metamorphosis and development control with the specific objectives of assessing the physical development between 1986 and 2018 and assessing residents’ perceptions of development control regulation and challenges of development control enforcement as regards to road setbacks in Ile-Ife, Osun State. Landsat images were used to examine changes in the physical development (built-up) in Ile-Ife. A questionnaire and key informant interview were used to examine residents’ perceptions of development control regulation and the challenges of development control enforcement. The result showed that built-up area increased from 2760.05ha (94.81%) between 1986 and 2002 to 6843.41ha (120.67%) between 2002 and 2018, and 9603.46ha (329.87%) between 1986 and 2018. Between 1986 and 2018, a recorded annual magnitude and frequency of 9603.46ha and 600.22 ha were built up. The study revealed that 60% of the informants confirmed that the planning authorities were grappling with inadequate funds and inadequate technical and manpower, which had resulted in their inability to undertake planning activities. The study concluded that rapid development had negatively affected development control in the study area. It is therefore recommended that the government strengthen the planning authority, subsidize the cost of plan approval, and provide easy access to building permits.


Urban Metamorphosis, Development control, Planning Authority, Geospatial analysis



  1. O. F. Oluseyi, "Urban Land Use Change Analysis of a Traditional City from Remote Sensing Data: The Case of Ibadan Metropolitan Area, Nigeria," 2006.
  2. O. J. Taiwo, "Modelling the spatiotemporal patterns of urban sprawl in Ibadan metropolis between 1984 and 2013 in Nigeria," Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, vol. 8, pp. 121-140, 2021.
  3. A. Aribigbola, "Urban Land Use Planning, Policies and Management in Sub Saharan African Countries: Empirical Evidence from Akure, Nigeria," 2007.
  4. Y. T. Mustafa, "Multi-temporal satellite data for land use/cover (LULC) change detection in Zakho, Kurdistan Region-Iraq," Environmental Remote Sensing and GIS in Iraq, pp. 161-180, 2020.
  5. A. Ahmed and R. D. Dinye, "Urbanisation and the challenges of development controls in Ghana: A case study of Wa Township," Journal of sustainable development in Africa, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 210-235, 2011.
  6. Y. Sanusi, "Pattern of Urban Land Development Control in Nigeria. A Case Study of Minna, Niger State," Journal of the Nigerian Institute of Town Planners, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 125-147, 2006.
  7. A. J. Akinlabi, "URBAN GOVERNANCE: COMPLEXITIES IN LAND DEVELOPMENT CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT OF NIGERIAN CITIES," Public Policy and International Affair Academic Journal, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 12-21, 05/17 2022. [Online]. Available:
  8. A. Rash, Y. Mustafa, and R. Hamad, "Quantitative assessment of Land use/land cover changes in a developing region using machine learning algorithms: A case study in the Kurdistan Region, Iraq," Heliyon, vol. 9, no. 11, p. e21253, 2023/11/01/ 2023, doi:
  9. H. a. E. M. o. L. Government. "Housing and Environment Ministry of Local Government." Development control. < planning/development-control>. (accessed July 17, 2019).
  10. B. Abdurrahman and B. Patience, "A Geospatial Database for Development Control in Jimeta Metropolis, Nigeria," International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, vol. 8, no. 11, p. 220, 2017.
  11. K. M. Owen, and Patroba A. O., "Monitoring Spatio-Temporal Compliance of Urban Development Plans Using GIS and Remote Sensing in Nairobi City County, Kenya," Ghana Journal of Geography, vol. 13, no. 3, 2021.
  12. A. Akingbade, R. Olaiya, and A. Olabamiji, "Building Compliance to Road Setback in Urban Area of Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria: from Remotely Sensed Data," Journal of Geospatial Science and Technology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 13-22, 2022.
  13. J. O. a. D. Olusina, T., "Prediction of parking lot availability using elang’s loss theory," International Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 63-70, 2014.
  14. V. Karimi, H. Ebadi, and S. Ahmadi, "Public parking site selection using GIS," in Hyderabad, India, Map World Forum, 2006.
  15. A. Yaakup, S. Z. A. Bakar, and S. Sulaiman, "Decision Support System for Urban Sustainability Planning in Malaysia," 2011.
  16. A. O. Obabori, D. A. Obiuwevbi, and J. I. Olomu, "Development Control an Important Regulator of Settlement Growth: A Case Study of Ekpoma, Nigeria," Journal of Human Ecology, vol. 21, pp. 285 - 291, 2007.
  17. W. Omollo, "Development Control on Urban Road Reserves in Kenya: A Case Study on Compliance with Planning Standards," (in eng), International Journal of Architectural Engineering & Urban Planning, Research Paper vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 68-72, 2021, doi: 10.22068/ijaup.31.1.629.
  18. N. p. Census, "National population Census (2006). Population Census of Nigeria final results. Federal Republic of Nigeria, Official Gazette 2009, 96 (2), 41-42.," Federal Republic of Nigeria, Official Gazette, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 41-42, 2006.
  19. J. K. Olúpò?nà, City of 201 Gods Ilé-Ifè in Time, Space, and the Imagination, 1 ed. University of California Press, 2011.
  20. A. L. Mabogunje, Yoruba Towns. Ibadan, Ibadan University Press. , 1962.
  21. M. Oyinloye, "Spatial analysis of urban growth in Akure, Nigeria [Ph. D. thesis]," ed: Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria, 2010.
  22. F. Naab, R. D. Dinye, and R. K. Kasanga, "Urbanisation and its impact on agricultural lands in growing cities in developing countries: a case study of Tamale in Ghana," European scientific journal, vol. 2, pp. 256-287, 2013.


Metrics Loading ...