Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

Evaluation of Physical, Spatial and Demographic Expansions in Ilam City from 1956 to 2016

Journal of Applied Science and Technology Trends


The physical and spatial expansion of cities, which often took place without planning, caused numerous environmental, health, economic, and social problems. This study investigates the physical, spatial, and demographic development and expansion of Ilam city in Iran for over 60 years. To achieve these goals, library studies, data analysis, and field studies were applied. The process of development in Ilam and its demographic changes from 1956 to 2016 have been presented, and then the spatial-physical expansion of the city has been evaluated. The results showed that several factors had impacted the physical development and expansion of Ilam. The highest growth was observed between 1976 and 1986. Also, the development of the city has been more horizontal. The study results show the correlation, intensity, extension, and mechanism of conversion and land-use change in Ilam city and embody its spatial-physical expansion.


Evaluation, Spatial-Physical Expansion, Ilam, LULC



  1. P. Pourmohammadi and A. Zamani, "Evaluation of spatial-physical development of Zanjan city with an emphasis on land use change in 2005-2006," University of Tehran, 2007 2007.
  2. A. Muhammed, H. Karimi, B. Gharab, S. Neamat, and K. Mirzaei, "Assessment of the Quality of the Environment in Duhok Province, Kurdistan Region of Iraq," JoCEF, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 20-24, 2020 2020.
  3. A. Kourosh Niya, J. Huang, A. Kazemzadeh-Zow, H. Karimi, and H. Naimi, "Comparison of three hybrid models to simulate land use changes: a case study in Qeshm Island, Iran," Environ Monit Assess, vol. 192, p. 302, 2020 2020, doi: 10.1007/s10661-020-08274-6.
  4. Y. T. Mustafa, "Multi-temporal satellite data for land use/cover (LULC) change detection in Zakho, Kurdistan Region-Iraq," Environmental Remote Sensing and GIS in Iraq, pp. 161-180, 2020.
  5. S. Roostayi, E. Aliakbari, and R. Hoseinzadeh, "Studying the Key Influencing Factors on the Growth of Large Cities (Case Study: the City of Urmia)," Research and Urban Planning, vol. 7, no. 26, pp. 53-74, 2016 2016.
  6. Y. Lei, J. Flacke, and S. Nina, "Does Urban planning affect urban growth pattern? A case study of Shenzhen, China," Land Use Policy, vol. 101, 2021 2021.
  7. D. Hu et al., "Analyzing Land Use Changes in the Metropolitan Jilin City of Northeastern China Using Remote Sensing and GIS," Sensors, vol. 8, pp. 5449-5465, 2008 2008, doi: 10.3390/s8095449.
  8. A. Rash, Y. Mustafa, and R. Hamad, "Quantitative assessment of Land use/land cover changes in a developing region using machine learning algorithms: A case study in the Kurdistan Region, Iraq," Heliyon, vol. 9, no. 11, p. e21253, 2023/11/01/ 2023, doi:
  9. H. Bagan and Y. Yamagata, "Landsat analysis of urban growth: how Tokyo became the world’s largest megacity during the last 40 years," Remote Sens. Environ., vol. 127, pp. 210-222, 2012 2012.
  10. H. Karimi, J. Jafarnezhad, J. Khaledi, and P. Ahmadi, "Monitoring and prediction of land use/land cover changes using CA-Markov model: a case study of Ravansar County in Iran," Arab J Geosci, vol. 11, no. 592, 2018 2018, doi: 10.1007/s12517-018-3940-5.
  11. H. Karimi, J. Jafarnezhad, and A. Kakhani, "Landsat Time-Series for Land Use Change Detection Using Support Vector Machine: Case Study of Javanrud District, Iran," presented at the 2020 International Conference on Computer Science and Software Engineering (CSASE), 2020, 2020. [Online]. Available:
  12. Y. T. Mustafa, "Multi-temporal Satellite Data for Land Use/Cover (LULC) Change Detection in Zakho, Kurdistan Region-Iraq," in Environmental Remote Sensing and GIS in Iraq: Springer Water, 2020.
  13. J. S. Alawamy, S. K. Balasundram, A. H. Mohd, Hanif, and C. T. Boon Sung, "Detecting and Analyzing Land Use and Land Cover Changes in the Region of Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar, Libya Using Time-Series Landsat Data from 1985 to 2017," Sustainability, vol. 12, p. 4490, 2020 2020, doi: 10.3390/su12114490.
  14. Y. T. Mustafa, R. T. Ali, and R. M. Saleh, "Monitoring and evaluating land cover change in the Duhok city, Kurdistan region-Iraq, by using remote sensing and GIS," International Journal of Engineering Inventions, vol. 1, no. 11, pp. 28-33, 2012.
  15. F. Effati, H. Karimi, and A. Yavari, "Investigating effects of land use and land cover patterns on land surface temperature using landscape metrics in the city of Tehran, Iran," Arab J Geosci, vol. 14, p. 1240, 2020 2020, doi: 10.1007/s12517-021-07433-4.
  16. S. Musa Kazemi, "Sustainability assessment of urban development, concepts and methods and indicators," Peyk Noor, Payame Noor University Quarterly, vol. Fifth Year, no. Second Issue, 2007 2007.
  17. S. AliAkbari, "Analysis of the green space of Ilam with the effect of sustainable development," Masters Thesis, Payame Noor University, Central Tehran, 2008.


Metrics Loading ...