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Measuring Spatial Justice Indices in the Traditional Islamic Cities by Using GIS, An-Najaf Holy City, Iraq: A Case Study


Iraq includes several traditional Islamic cities, and they share many spatial and social characteristics. A question has often been raised about these cities' ability to achieve spatial justice for their current residents. Therefore, the research aims to answer this question by following a specific methodology based on the derivation of factors and indices of spatial justice through previous literature, then measuring the indices derived in the ancient Najaf city as an example of traditional Islamic cities. The research found that there are five main factors for spatial justice, which are: spatial diversity, spatial connectivity, spatial resilience, spatial security, and spatial empowerment, which in turn are divided into ten indices. These indices were measured in Najaf City. It became clear that the mixed land use index, spatial connectivity indices, and spatial security indices were well achieved, while the mixed residential patterns and spatial empowerment indices did not. As for spatial resilience, changes occurred in land uses. However, these changes were not the result of social and cultural changes or according to the city's residents' needs. Instead, they occurred due to economic changes that primarily served visitors and arrivals to the city.


spatial justice, spatial diversity, spatial connectivity, spatial resilience, spatial security, spatial empowerment



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