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Mapping Ecosystem Service: Challenges and Solutions


The concept of ecosystem service (ES) was originally developed to illustrate the benefits that natural ecosystems generate for society and to raise awareness for biodiversity and ecosystem conservation. In recent years, geographical information systems (GIS) have become a powerful tool for mapping (ES) within a landscape, which visualizes spatial and temporal patterns and changes in ecosystems and their services. Mapping (ES) is necessary for the progress of strategies that will guarantee their future supply and to support the policies in a more effective way. The comprehensive literature review was conducted using international databases such as Elsevier, Springer, Wiley, and Google Scholar. We used key terms including 'mapping','maps’, ‘ES or ecosystem service, ‘ecosystem functions’, ‘landscape functions’, ‘evaluation of ES’, and ‘assessment of services’.  To identify mapping ecosystem services and their challenges and opportunities. In total, 65 research papers were found first, of which 34 were selected for review. The most important challenges are insufficient generation of ES in the context of managed systems, the need to estimate associations among indicators of (ES) incomplete understanding of the nature of associations among services, and the lack of a general numerical outline to address these relations.


Ecosystem Services, Human Welfare, GIS, Mapping


Author Biography

Yaseen T. Mustafa

Deptarment of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science, University of Zakho, Duhok, Kurdistan Region-Iraq;

Center of Applied Remote Sensing and GIS, University of Zakho, Duhok, Kurdistan Region-Iraq


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