Main Article Content
The rapidly and wide use of remote sensing and accurately obtain information on the spatiotemporal distribution of large-scale vegetation is of great significance for improving and managing the Environment. To assess and analyze the spatiotemporal variation of vegetation status in Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRGI), we used time series NDVI-based vegetation that are extracted from MOD13Q1 MODIS product over 20 years (2000 - 2019). The results showed that vegetation was mainly distributed in the north-east to south-east of the KRGI, while west region has less distributed and almost no vegetation. This is clearly remarkable in the south-west part of the region (Garmian administration). While, the most dominated vegetation province was Duhok province in KRGI during study period. There is a noticeable temporal variation in vegetation over a period of 20-year in the KRGI. The lower vegetated cover area is observed in the years 2000, 2008, and 2009. The increase/decrease of vegetated cover area is not only effected by climate conditions. The anthropogenic resource is also one of the main resources that has a major influence on the increase/decrease of vegetation.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
H. A. Gaznayee and A. M. F. Al-Quraishi, "Analysis of Agricultural Drought’s Severity and Impacts in Erbil Province, the Iraqi Kurdistan Region based on Time Series NDVI and TCI Indices for 1998 through 2017," Jour of Adv Research in Dynamical & Control Systems, vol. 11, 2019.
M. Palchaudhuri and S. Biswas, "Application of LISS III and MODIS-derived vegetation indices for assessment of micro-level agricultural drought," The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science, 2019.
S. AKSOY, O. GORUCU, and E. SERTEL, "Drought Monitoring using MODIS derived indices and Google Earth Engine Platform," in 2019 8th International Conference on Agro-Geoinformatics (Agro-Geoinformatics), 2019, pp. 1-6.
M. Staszczak, "Examining the relationship between soil characteristics and vegetation phenology: does soil moisture as a factor improve the end of season model?," 2019.
L. S. Ferreira and D. H. S. Duarte, "Exploring the relationship between urban form, land surface temperature and vegetation indices in a subtropical megacity," Urban Climate, vol. 27, pp. 105-123, 2019.
Y. T. Mustafa, R. T. Ali, and R. M. Saleh, "Monitoring and evaluating land cover change in the Duhok city, Kurdistan region-Iraq, by using remote sensing and GIS," Int. J. Eng. Inv., vol. 1, pp. 28-33, 2012.
S. Siefi, H. Karimi, A. Soffianian, and S. Pourmanafi, "GIS-based multi criteria evaluation for thermal power plant site selection in Kahnuj County, SE Iran," Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, vol. 50, pp. 179-189, 2017.
A. Kourosh Niya, J. Huang, H. Karimi, H. Keshtkar, and B. Naimi, "Use of Intensity Analysis to Characterize Land Use/Cover Change in the Biggest Island of Persian Gulf, Qeshm Island, Iran," Sustainability, vol. 11, p. 4396, 2019.
J. D. Armston, R. J. Denham, T. J. Danaher, P. F. Scarth, and T. N. Moffiet, "Prediction and validation of foliage projective cover from Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ imagery," Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, vol. 3, pp. 033540-033540-28, 2009.
S. L. Furby, P. A. Caccetta, J. F. Wallace, E. A. Lehmann, and K. Zdunic, "Recent development in vegetation monitoring products from Australia's National Carbon Accounting System," in Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2009 IEEE International, IGARSS 2009, 2009, pp. IV-276-IV-279.
R. B. Myneni, R. Ramakrishna, R. Nemani, and S. W. Running, "Estimation of global leaf area index and absorbed par using radiative transfer models," Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 35, pp. 1380-1393, 1997.
Y. T. MUSTAFA, T. K. SALIH, and M. H. OBEYED, "ESTIMATING OF DIAMETER AT BREAST HEIGHT FOR SCATTERED PinusbrutiaTEN. TREES USING REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES, IN ZAWITA SUB-DISTRICT, DUHOK, KURDISTAN REGION-IRAQ," in The 2nd Scientific Agricultural Conference, p. 311.
Y. T. Mustafa and H. N. Habeeb, "Landsat LDCM Imagery for Estimating and Mapping Burned Forest Areas Caused By Jet Attacks in Duhok Governorate, Kurdistan Region - Iraq," Journal of University of Duhok, vol. 19, pp. 683-690, 2016.
T. Pisman, A. Shevyrnogov, A. Larko, I. Botvich, D. Emelyanov, A. Shpedt, et al., "The Information Content of Spectral Vegetation Indices in the Interpretation of Satellite Images of Cultivated Fields," Biophysics, vol. 64, pp. 588-592, 2019.
J. Svejkovsky, D. E. Ogurcak, M. S. Ross, and A. Arkowitz, "Satellite Image-Based Time Series Observations of Vegetation Response to Hurricane Irma in the Lower Florida Keys," Estuaries and Coasts, pp. 1-12, 2020.
H. Karimi, J. Jafarnezhad, J. Khaledi, and P. Ahmadi, "Monitoring and prediction of land use/land cover changes using CA-Markov model: a case study of Ravansar County in Iran," Arabian Journal of Geosciences, vol. 11, p. 592, 2018/10/06 2018.
H. Karimi, "Application of Remote Sensing in Diseases Monitoring and Dispersion," Int J Health Life Sci, vol. 6, p. e100288, 2020.
Y. T. Mustafa, "Satellite Remote Sensing for Spatio-Temporal Estimation of Leaf Area Index in Heterogeneous Forests," International Journal of Environmental Protection, vol. 3, pp. 10-16, 2013.
M. Gholamnia, R. Khandan, S. Bonafoni, and A. Sadeghi, "Spatiotemporal Analysis of MODIS NDVI in the Semi-Arid Region of Kurdistan (Iran)," Remote Sensing, vol. 11, p. 1723, 2019.
J. Deka, S. Kalita, and M. L. Khan, "Vegetation Phenological Characterization of Alluvial Plain Shorea robusta-dominated Tropical Moist Deciduous Forest of Northeast India Using MODIS NDVI Time Series Data," Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, vol. 47, pp. 1287-1293, 2019/08/01 2019.
S. O. Hussein, F. Kovács, and Z. Tobak, "Spatiotemporal assessment of vegetation indices and land cover for Erbil city and its surrounding using MODIS imageries," Journal of Environmental Geography, vol. 10, pp. 31-39, 2017.
M. O. PLANNING-KRG, "Regional Development Strategy for Kurdistan Region," 2017.
L. Eklund, A. Abdi, and M. Islar, "From producers to consumers: the challenges and opportunities of agricultural development in Iraqi Kurdistan," Land, vol. 6, p. 44, 2017.
K. Didan, "MOD13Q1 MODIS/Terra Vegetation Indices 16-Day L3 Global 250m SIN Grid V006. NASA EOSDIS LP DAAC," Retrieved from https://lpdaac.usgs.gov/products/mod13q1v006/, vol. 10, 2015.
K. Didan, A. B. Munoz, R. Solano, and A. Huete, "MODIS vegetation index user’s guide (MOD13 series)," University of Arizona: Vegetation Index and Phenology Lab, 2015.
A. Huete, K. Didan, T. Miura, E. P. Rodriguez, X. Gao, and L. G. Ferreira, "Overview of the radiometric and biophysical performance of the MODIS vegetation indices," Remote sensing of environment, vol. 83, pp. 195-213, 2002.
H. A. A. Gaznayee and A. M. F. Al-Quraishi, "Analysis of Agricultural Drought, Rainfall, and Crop Yield Relationships in Erbil Province, the Kurdistan Region of Iraq based on Landsat Time-Series MSAVI2."