Spin coating is a technique employed for the deposition of uniform thin films of organic materials in the range of micrometer to nanometer on flat substrates. Typically, a small amount of coating material generally as a liquid is dropped over the substrate center, which is either static or spinning at low speed. The substrate is then rotated at the desired speed and the coating material has been spread by centrifugal force. A device that is used for spin coating is termed a spin coater or just a spinner. The substrate continued to spin and the fluid spins off the boundaries of the substrate until the film is reached the required thickness. The thickness and the characteristics of coated layer (film) are depending on the number of rotations per minute (rpm) and the time of rotation. Therefore, a mathematical model is obtained to clarify the prevalent method controlling thin film fabrication. Viscosity and the concentration of (solution) spin coating material are also affecting the thickness of the substrate. This article reviews spin coating techniques including stages in the coating process such as deposition, spin-up, stable fluid outflow (spin-off), and evaporation. Additionally, the main affecting factors on the film thickness in the coating process are reviewed.
Spin-coating, modeling, stages of spin coating, thin film fabrication
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